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What is blood mismatch during pregnancy?

What is blood mismatch during pregnancy?


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It is known that there are more than 100 blood groups determined according to genetic characteristics. However, the main blood groups that are generally identified and universally accepted are called ABO system. Each person has one of the main groups A, B, AB and 0. Blood groups are identified and named according to the antigens on the red blood cells. Antigens are proteins that activate the defense system. Only A antigens in group A blood, only B antigens in group B, both (A and B) antigens in group AB, while “O sahip have neither A nor B antigen. Other antigens that further customize blood groups are available . The most important factor is Rh factor. Those who do not have Rh antigen in their blood are defined as Rh negative (-) and those with Rh antigen are identified as Rh positive (+). More than 85% of people are Rh positive. Blood incompatibility occurs especially when the mother is Rh (-) and the father is Rh (+).Prenatal precautionsIt is imperative that the mothers' blood type be known before birth. If the expectant mother has a document which is found to be inaccurate in expressing her blood type, a test should be performed to determine the blood type again.
Knowing the blood type is very important to take precautions against blood mismatches. One example is that the baby will be born when the mother is Rh (-) and the father is Rh (+), according to Mendel Laws, depending on the genetic structure of the father (heterozygous or homozygous) 50% or 100% Rh (+) is born. Since it is not known in scientific studies how the father regulates the genes that determine the blood group, it is assumed that there is a classic “blood incompatibility” or “Rh incompatibility bilinen which is generally known in any case where the mother is Rh (-) and the father is Rh (+).
If the baby is really Rh (+), a dangerous situation arises if the blood gets into the mother's blood, even in very small amounts. Because the mother's immune system is different from their own red blood cells, the baby's red blood cells called antibodies against the form of substances called. The greater the antibody, the greater the risk of anemia-related heart failure and death. The optimal solution to protect both the mother and the baby is to ensure that this stimulation does not occur, as the mother's immune system, once stimulated, irreversibly produces antibodies against foreign red blood cells. This arousal can occur at a rate of 1% at birth. However, not every warning comes with birth. Apart from this path, blood mismatch may occur due to incorrect blood transfusions, interference with blood-infected surgical instruments, or injections. Therefore, each candidate with Rh (-) should be screened for anti-Rh antibodies at the beginning of the pregnancy (Indirect Coombs Test.) Since the most important treatment of blood mismatch is prevention, the following rules should be observed: - If there is Rh mismatch in the mother and father candidates, indirect coombs test should be repeated at appropriate intervals. - If necessary, an early protection needle (Rh hyperimmune globulin) can be given at 28 weeks of gestation in the first pregnancy. - If the baby's blood type is Rh positive; Rh hyperimmunglobin injection should be performed within 72 hours to prevent antibody production to protect subsequent babies. - Your mother becomes vulnerable, putting the baby at risk. Therefore, in the following months of pregnancy; antibody levels in the blood are checked. If the antibody level is high, the baby's health should be monitored in a perinatology clinic with special tests and appropriate treatment should be performed. - In cases of abortion greater than 3 months, full dose of immunoglobulin should be administered. Since red blood cells start to form in the fetus after 6 - 8 weeks in the first 3 months, low dose hyperimmunoglobulin (protective needle) should be administered. - For medical reasons or optionally, in cases of abortion, Rh hyperimmunglobulin should be administered before the intervention, and operation should be performed with vacuum if possible.


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