With the arrival of winter months, the risk of developing upper respiratory tract diseases increases. Member of American Academy of Pediatrics, Child Health and Diseases Specialist Dr.Hayriye Aygar He shares with you those who are curious about these diseases.
: What are the most common upper respiratory diseases in winter?
Dr. Hayriye Aygar: The most common upper respiratory disease is colds, also known as colds. Others include influenza, influenza, sinusitis, otitis media, tonsillitis, pharyngitis and laryngitis.
: What are the causes of these diseases in winter?
Dr. Hayriye Aygar: The main reasons are children coming into crowded environments such as classrooms, kindergartens, kindergartens with the opening of schools in winter months, getting infection from the sick children easily with respiratory and direct contact, less ventilated warm and dry, closed environments and decrease in physical activity due to decrease in physical activity.
: Could you give us brief information about these diseases?
Dr. Hayriye Aygar:
Cold: It is a viral infection of the upper respiratory tract. At least 100 different cold virus viruses have been identified. Children may have a cold 5-9 times a year.
Routes of transmission - cough occurs by sneezing through airborne droplets or by hand contact.
Symptoms-runny nose, sneezing, mild fever, weakness, loss of appetite, cough, redness in the eyes are seen.
Treatment - There is no treatment for the causative agent. As supportive symptomatic treatment, antipyretics, saline aqueous nasal drops, humidification of the room air and supply of plenty of fluids.
Flu: The viruses are influenza viruses. These viruses constantly change the antigens that enable them to recognize them in our body, the small-scale changes every year, the body can protect itself to some extent according to the immune status gained earlier, large-scale antigen changes occur every 10 years and cause epidemics.
Ways of transmission - cough sneezing is transmitted by inhalation of airborne droplets from person to person by direct contact with substances contaminated by nasal and throat secretions.
Symptoms - Sudden onset of high fever, chills, headache, weakness, muscle aches, sputum-free cough happens. Afterwards, respiratory symptoms such as sore throat and runny nose become prominent. Abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, reddening of the eyes, calf pain may occur.
The disease can last for 5-7 days and small infants may develop pneumonia, croup, bronchiolitis as a complication.
Treatment - Antibiotics are useless. Supportive treatment is given such as antipyretics, nasal openers, cough medicines, plenty of fluids and rest.
There is a vaccine for protection.
Inflammation of the middle ear: (Acute otitis media) 9 of 10 children between 0-2 years 9 at least once otitis is caught. Most of the causative bacteria are. Eustachian tube extending from the nasal to the middle ear is shorter and horizontal than the adult microbes in the nose and throat easily move to the middle ear. respiratory tract infections predispose to middle ear infection.
Symptoms - Fever, restlessness, headache, weakness, vomiting, cough, runny nose, ear pain in older children, infants lying on top of the aching ear, shaking the head, crying by pulling the head by hand, ear discharge is seen.
Repetitive otitis leads to hearing loss.
Treatment-Appropriate antibiotics are given.In spite of medication, otitis continues if surgical treatment may be needed. In this procedure called parasentesis, sterile conditions are made by scratching the eardrum and opening the hole in the middle ear and the tube can be inserted. Nasal flesh or tonsil surgery can be done if necessary.
Pneumococcal vaccine is administered for protection.
Sinusitis: Infections of the sinuses located around the nasal cavity occur after upper respiratory tract infection, which causes rhinitis.
Symptoms-Although it varies according to age groups 10-14 days usually show no improvement in cough and purulent nasal discharge cough, nasal discharge at night is more prominent.High fever, facial pain, facial swelling can also be seen.
Treatment-Appropriate antibiotic therapy, decongestant, pain relief, symptomatic supportive treatment such as mucolytic treatment is applied. may occur, such as brain abscess.
Tonsillitis and pharyngitis: Most of them are caused by viruses. However, 15% are group A beta hemolytic streprococci which can cause serious complications.
Symptoms-The most important clinical finding is sore throat. Symptoms begin suddenly, may be accompanied by fever and lymph enlargement in the throat. Headache, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, swelling of the tonsils, redness occurs.
Treatment-Throat culture and rapid antigen tests are given if appropriate streptococcal antibiotics are given. .
Laryngitis: Inflammation of vocal cords. Viruses are the cause. 6 months-3 years old children.
Voice changes, sore throat, cough, fever are the most important symptoms. Spreading the inflammation under the vocal cords forms croup disease in children. Dry, barking style cough, breathing difficulties, even respiratory obstruction may result in situations such as death.
Treatment-Antibiotic treatment is unnecessary. Abundant fluid intake, humidification of the room, antipyretics are used.
: What is the pathway in the diagnosis of diseases?
Dr. Hayriye Aygar: Viral and bacterial infections should be differentiated in the diagnosis of the above-described diseases. Antibiotics are not effective in viral infections but appropriate antibiotics should be used in bacterial infections. Because of the large number of antigen types in viral infections, it is not practical to use serological tests. Diagnosis is usually made by detailed examination and examination of the patient's complaints. The diagnosis of sinusitis is made by endoscopic examination showing the nasal and nasal cavity. Middle ear inflammation-Otitis is examined in the otoscope with otoscope tympanometer to determine the pressure in the middle ear. Throat culture is taken to distinguish whether there is beta streptococci in tonsillary-pharyngitis.
: How is the treatment of diseases planned?
Dr. Hayriye Aygar: The use of antibiotics is ineffective in diseases caused by viral agents, does not prevent secondary infections, and leads to the emergence of resistant bacteria. Symptomatic treatment according to symptoms such as antipyretics, pain relievers, opening of nasal congestion with drops, abundant fluid intake, vitamin supplementation, steam baths, resting. If the symptoms persist, parasitic eardrum is drawn out of the otitis and the tube is put out and inflammation is performed. In cases of recurrent tonsillitis, tonsils are taken and if the risk factor is nasal flesh, surgical operations are performed when necessary.
: What are the reasons why some children are more likely to develop upper respiratory tract infections?
Dr. Hayriye Aygar: There are risk factors for upper respiratory diseases. Some families are genetically predisposed to some infectious diseases. Male sex, birth-weight infants less than 1500 g below birth weight, not breastfed, bottle-fed infants, smoking environments, nursery and school environment Children with immune system disorders, children with asthma and allergic diseases, congenital heart disease, children receiving cancer treatment are at risk, and upper respiratory diseases are caught more quickly and frequently.
: What protective measures can be taken to avoid these diseases?
Dr. Hayriye Aygar: Influenza-influenza vaccine is recommended for children with risk factors. The composition of the vaccine is changed every year at regular intervals according to the most common influenza strains expected to be available in the coming season. children between the full dose, as a 1-dose, if previously vaccinated, a single dose is applied over the age of 9. 8-10 days after the protection begins.
Pneumococcal vaccine - It is used for protection against middle ear inflammation, sinusitis and pneumonia caused by streptococcal pneumonia germ between 6 weeks and 9 years. Usually it is applied routinely. Different vaccination programs are applied for other age groups. As protective services, recurrent group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal infections are treated to family members with throat culture and treated if there is a carrier.
Risk factors are tried to be corrected. Only breast milk is encouraged for 6 months.
Vitamins and herbal products can be used to strengthen the immune system.
: Are there any measures that parents can take to prevent their children from developing these diseases?
Dr. Hayriye Aygar: The most effective way of protection is hand washing. Children should be encouraged to wash their hands with soap and water for 30 seconds. , protein-rich, zinc, vitamin-rich nutrition, regular sleep necessary vaccines to strengthen the immune system.
Child Health and Diseases Specialist
Member of the American Academy of Pediatrics
Mua: Nuzhetiye Cad., No: 62 / 6., Besiktas, Istanbul.
Tel: 258 06 80
I [email protected]